VY Canis Majoris is surrounded by an extensive and dense asymmetric red reflection nebula, formed from the material lost from the star. The nebula has an estimated mass of 0.2-0.4 solar masses and a complex structure that includes filaments and arcs, which were caused by past eruptions. The star's massive eruptions have led to the formation of a huge nebula of material expelled from the star, making it one of the largest stars known, with an estimated radius at least 1,420 times that of the Sun.
With a staggering mass estimated at 17 times that of the Sun and an extraordinary radius spanning 10,000 to 15,000 astronomical units (the average distance between Earth and the Sun is 1 AU), this celestial giant defies comprehension.
The luminosity of VY Canis Majoris, radiating at approximately three hundred thousand times that of the Sun, places it among the exclusive ranks of hybrid giants in the Milky Way, such as Betelgeuse. Picture Betelgeuse, but on an astronomical scale—larger, more massive, and marked by violent mass eruptions occurring roughly every two hundred years.
As VY Canis Majoris enters its death phase, a stark departure from the Sun's eventual fate, it undergoes sporadic and substantial mass loss events.
The spectrum of the massive star shows characteristics of a high luminosity m-class star, but its hydrogen lines have P Cygni profiles fit for luminous blue variables. This suggests that it may have evolved from a hot, luminous blue main sequence star of spectral type O9. However, it is currently classified as an extreme oxygen-rich (O-rich) red hypergiant. While it may have been a blue star in the past, it is now a red hypergiant.
Attempting to grasp the enormity of a red hypergiant star like VY Canis Majoris is a mind-bending endeavour. Each small knot of gas on this celestial behemoth outweighs Jupiter, and the star itself boasts a staggering radius 1420 times that of our Sun.
Scientists project a mesmerizing future for VY Canis Majoris, foreseeing its inevitable transformation into a supernova or hypernova, ejecting material at velocities nearing 99% of the speed of light. And the possibility of this celestial giant evolving into a black hole adds an extra layer of intrigue to the cosmic pondering.
As someone who enjoys photography, I really like this wide-angle photo. The star is surrounded by fascinating elements, like glowing clouds of red hydrogen gas, drifting dust clouds, and the bright star cluster around Tau Canis Majoris towards the upper right.