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Welcome to the Space Ponder.

This is continuing on from a previous article. I'd highly suggest you read the prior article if you haven't heard what the allegory of the cave is or are rusty on the topic and its relationship to Indirect Realism. You can read that one here. Let's begin to ponder this fascinating philosophy.

The theory of Forms, also known as Platonic realism, is a philosophical concept that was first introduced by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. The theory posits that abstract concepts or ideas, such as truth, beauty, justice, or love, exist as immaterial entities outside of the physical world. In this article, we will explore the main ideas behind the theory of Forms and its implications for philosophy and metaphysics.

The basic premise of the theory of Forms is that there is a fundamental distinction between the physical world that we can observe with our senses and the realm of abstract concepts that exist beyond the physical. According to Plato, the physical world is merely a shadow or imitation of the real world of Forms, which is eternal, unchanging, and perfect.

For Plato, the Forms are the ultimate reality, and they are the objects of knowledge and understanding that we seek as human beings. The Forms are not tangible objects that we can see or touch, but they are instead abstract concepts that exist outside of time and space. They are the archetypes or perfect examples of all things that exist in the physical world.

Plato believed that the Forms could be known through reason and contemplation, rather than through sensory experience. He argued that the physical world is always changing and in flux, while the Forms are eternal and unchanging. Thus, knowledge of the Forms is more reliable and true than knowledge gained through sensory experience.

The Allegory of the Cave

One of the most famous examples of the theory of forms is the "Allegory of the Cave," which

appears in Plato's work "The Republic." In this allegory, a group of people are chained in a cave, facing a wall, and are only able to see shadows cast by objects outside of the cave. Plato used this allegory to illustrate the difference between the physical world (the shadows on the wall) and the world of forms (the objects outside the cave).

Have a look at the image of the cave and observe the shadows. As we know, the prisoners are seeing an imitation of real objects such as the vase, horse, circle and bird, which are being held by the hooded people. And as we know, those objects that the hooded people are holding up are also imitations of real things.

Plato states that even the real things such as a horse outside of the cave are imitations of a higher reality. Yes, as bizarre as it sounds, this real horse is a shadow. I'm reminded of Carl Sagan's flatland. It's not directly related to Plato's "Allegory of the Cave." However, both works use abstract ideas to comment on our perception of reality.

In "Flatland," Sagan uses the concept of multiple dimensions to challenge our understanding of the physical world. The story is set in a two-dimensional world where the characters can only perceive objects in two dimensions, but the protagonist eventually discovers the existence of a third dimension. This concept encourages readers to question their own perceptions of reality and the limitations of our senses.

A shadow of a horse

Similarly, if we were used to existing in the realms of the forms, and then saw a horse on Earth we'd think that would look bizarre. Why? Well,

  1. It would be moving

  2. It would be changing

  3. It would not be perfect

In the realm of the forms, things don't move nor change and are perfect.

A shadow of a tesseract

Sagan's analogy allows us to ponder about our limited perception of the 3D world. According to Sagan, a 4D world exists but is beyond our perceptions. He shows us a tesseract which is actually not the tesseract at all but just a shadow of the 4D object since it would be impossible to perceive a 4D object in 3D just like the flatlander perceives a slither of the actual object. And like the flatlander, we also see just a slither of the object. All of this is related to Indirect Realism, a modern day allegory of the cave, which we pondered on the previous article. In short, Indirect Realism states that we always see a perception of reality. This would mean that even atoms are perceptions and we're not seeing the actual objective reality. An objective reality certainly exists but it is not what we perceive. Perception is not reality.

Art Imitating Reality

A friend once shared with me a great example of imitation of real life. Actors. We see some phenomenal acting in movies and TV shows such as Breaking Bad. In other series and movies, we may cringe at bad acting, bad imitations of reality.

Needless to say, Walter White never did his own product. Or did he? In a behind the scenes blooper, Jesse Pinkman pressured Walt to try some of the crystal. Bryan Cranston then eats the crystal. Well, this is not meth, it's rock candy explained by Cranston, An imitation of crystal meth.

So, the allegory can be interpreted in a number of ways, but at its core, it is a metaphor for the limitations of human perception. The prisoners in the cave represent humanity, and their limited view of reality is symbolic of our own limitations. We can only perceive the world around us through our senses, and these senses are limited by our physical bodies and the material world. This means that the reality we experience is only a partial and incomplete reflection of the true reality that exists beyond our senses.

Platonic realism takes this idea even further. It suggests that the true reality that exists beyond our senses is a realm of ideas or forms, which are perfect and eternal. The material world we see around us is only a copy or imitation of these perfect forms. For example, the form of a circle exists perfectly in the realm of ideas, but any circle we see in the material world is only an imperfect copy of this ideal form.

The allegory of the cave is designed to help us grasp this concept of Platonic realism. By illustrating the limitations of human perception, it shows us that there is a deeper reality beyond what we can see, hear, touch, taste, and smell. It encourages us to question our assumptions and beliefs about reality and consider the possibility that there is more to the world than what we can perceive with our senses.

B theory of time

I'm adding the B theory of time here because it has some similarities such as that space-time is an unchanging structure and only through life's perceptions, that we get a changing one.

In the movie or DVD analogy Max Tegmark has used the DVD analogy to explain his view on time. He said that time is not fundamental, but rather an illusion created by our brain states.

He said that space-time is like a DVD that contains all the frames of our movie-like life, and that nothing is changing in the DVD itself. He said that we have the illusion of time passing because we have memories of previous frames.

In this diagram below of the block universe, we can see that the past, present, and future all exist together and is an unchanging structure, similar to the unchanging realms of the forms. It's only when we play the DVD or when our perceptions are in the way, we get a moving universe

What are you?

  • A Platonic Realist/Indirect Realist

  • A Direct Realist

The Kardashev Scale is a theoretical framework developed by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev in 1964 to measure the level of technological advancement of a civilization based on its energy consumption. The scale is divided into three types of civilizations, based on the amount of energy they are capable of harnessing and utilizing.

  • Type I Civilization

A Type I Civilization is one that is capable of utilizing all the energy resources available on its planet. This includes harnessing energy from its star, such as solar power, as well as geothermal energy and other renewable sources. A Type I Civilization has the ability to control its weather, prevent natural disasters, and fully explore and utilize its planet's resources.

  • Type II Civilization

A Type II Civilization is one that is capable of utilizing all the energy available in its solar system. This includes harnessing the energy of its star and all the planets and other celestial bodies in the system. A Type II Civilization would have the ability to travel and colonize other planets and explore the entire galaxy.

  • Type III Civilization

A Type III Civilization is one that is capable of utilizing all the energy available in its galaxy. This includes harnessing the energy of all the stars, planets, and other celestial bodies in the galaxy. A Type III Civilization would have the ability to manipulate space-time and travel across vast distances in the galaxy.

The Kardashev Scale has become a popular tool for science fiction writers, futurists, and scientists to discuss and explore the potential of human civilization. It is important to note, however, that the scale is purely theoretical, and we have not yet reached a Type I Civilization. In fact, some scientists estimate that we are currently somewhere between a Type 0 and a Type I Civilization, depending on how we measure our energy consumption.

Carl Sagan extends the Kardashev Scale with two additional types.

Type 4

A Type 4 civilization is one that is capable of utilizing all the energy available in its entire universe. This includes harnessing the energy of multiple galaxies and possibly even dark energy.

& Type 5

Type 5 Civilization: The highest level on the scale, a Type V civilization is one that is capable of manipulating and controlling the fabric of space-time itself. This civilization would have the ability to create and shape entire universes and possibly even multiverses. Maybe that's where the DMT entities live. ;)

Sagan's extended Kardashev Scale reflects his belief that the original scale did not fully account for the vast potential of technological advancement and the role of sustainability in achieving higher levels of civilization. It also underscores the idea that there may be civilizations out there that are vastly more advanced than we can currently imagine, with capabilities that go beyond our current understanding of science and technology.

Another important aspect of Sagan's extended Kardashev Scale is that it highlights the interconnectedness of technological advancement and social progress. While the original scale focused solely on a civilization's ability to harness energy, Sagan recognized that this is only one part of the equation. In order to achieve higher levels of civilization, we must also address social and environmental issues and strive towards a more sustainable and equitable world.

Other ppls ideas on the Kardashev Scale.

Michio Kaku, a theoretical physicist and popular science communicator, has also discussed the Kardashev Scale and its potential implications for advanced civilizations. While he has not proposed an extension of the scale like Carl Sagan, he has provided additional insights and commentary on the topic.

One of Kaku's key contributions to the discussion of the Kardashev Scale is his concept of a "Type 0.5" civilization. This is a civilization that has not yet achieved the status of a Type I civilization, but is in the process of doing so. According to Kaku, we are currently a Type 0.7 civilization, meaning that we have not yet harnessed all the energy resources available on our planet but are moving towards greater sustainability and global unity.

Kaku has also discussed the potential risks and challenges associated with civilizations that have advanced beyond a Type III on the Kardashev Scale. In his book "The Future of Humanity," he suggests that Type III civilizations may be vulnerable to "catastrophic collapse" due to the potential for conflicts and instability on a galactic scale. He argues that the key to avoiding this outcome is for advanced civilizations to become more collaborative and cooperative, rather than competing with each other for resources and power.

Kaku's contributions to the discussion of the Kardashev Scale add valuable insights and perspectives to the ongoing debate about the potential of human civilization and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

John Barrow, a mathematician and cosmologist, proposed an alternative version of the Kardashev Scale in his book "Impossibility: The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits." Barrow's scale focuses on the energy required to transmit information across a given distance, rather than the total energy consumption of a civilization. This scale ranges from "Homo Sapiens" (unable to transmit any information beyond the range of unaided senses) to "Godlike" (able to transmit information across the entire universe).

Freeman Dyson, a physicist and mathematician, proposed a modification of the Kardashev Scale in which he replaced the measurement of energy consumption with the measurement of processing power. Dyson suggested that advanced civilizations might be more interested in processing information than in harnessing energy.

Paul Davies, a physicist and cosmologist, has proposed that the Kardashev Scale may be an oversimplification and that there may be multiple dimensions to a civilization's level of advancement. In his book "The Eerie Silence," Davies suggests that we should look for other signs of advanced technology beyond the mere harnessing of energy, such as evidence of artificial intelligence or the manipulation of spacetime. Black holes?

Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer at the SETI Institute, has suggested that the Kardashev Scale may be useful in searching for signs of extraterrestrial intelligence. By looking for evidence of advanced civilizations that are harnessing large amounts of energy, we may be able to narrow down our search for other intelligent beings in the universe.

Ray Kurzweil, a futurist, inventor, and author, has not explicitly discussed the Kardashev Scale in his writing, but his ideas on the Singularity and the future of technological progress are closely related to the concept of a Type III civilization.

Kurzweil believes that we are rapidly approaching a "Singularity," a point in the future when technological progress will accelerate exponentially, leading to transformative changes in human society and potentially even the emergence of a new form of intelligence. This vision of the future is similar to the idea of a Type III civilization, which would have harnessed all the energy resources of its galaxy and achieved a level of technological advancement that is difficult for us to comprehend.

Kurzweil's view of the future also incorporates the idea of a "Technological Singularity," in which artificial intelligence (AI) surpasses human intelligence and begins to drive further technological progress. This idea is relevant to the Kardashev Scale because it suggests that advanced civilizations may not necessarily rely solely on energy consumption as a measure of their level of advancement, but could instead rely on other measures such as computational power and AI.

Holocene Age

The Holocene epoch is a geological epoch that began around 11,700 years ago at the end of the last ice age and continues to the present day. It is the current epoch of the Quaternary Period in the geologic time scale. The Holocene is marked by a period of relative stability in the Earth's climate, with minor fluctuations in temperature and sea level over the past 11,000 years.

During the Holocene epoch, humans developed agriculture and began to form settled communities, leading to the rise of civilization. The Holocene is sometimes referred to as the Anthropocene, a term that reflects the significant impact that humans have had on the planet's ecosystems and geological processes during this period.

Well, this sounds like the beginning of a type 1 civilization or 0.5 civilization. Is technology about to bring us into a new age?

The Information Age

The Information Age refers to the period of human history characterized by the widespread use and reliance on digital technology to process, store, and transmit information. It is also sometimes referred to as the Digital Age, Computer Age, or New Media Age.

It began in the mid-20th century with the development of the first computers and the subsequent explosion in the amount of data that could be processed and stored electronically. With the advent of the internet in the 1990s, the amount of information available to individuals around the world increased exponentially, and the pace of technological progress has continued to accelerate since then.

The ability to access and manipulate data has become a critical driver of economic, political, and social change. The rise of social media, big data analytics, and other digital technologies has given rise to new forms of communication and new ways of organizing information. It has had a profound impact on many aspects of human society, from the way we communicate and do business to the way we learn and entertain ourselves.

Some even believe that information is the 5th state of matter. Read more on that here.

Moore's Law

Moore's Law is a prediction made by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel Corporation, in 1965 that the number of transistors on a microchip would double every 18 to 24 months. In other words, the computing power of a microchip would double approximately every two years.

Moore's Law has held true for several decades and has been a driving force behind the rapid advancements in computing technology that we have seen in recent years. As the number of transistors on a microchip increases, the chip becomes more powerful and capable of

processing larger amounts of data in less time. This has led to the development of faster and more powerful computers, smartphones, and other electronic devices that have revolutionized the way we live, work, and communicate.

While Moore's Law has been remarkably accurate over the years, some experts believe that it may be approaching its limits as we reach the physical limitations of how small we can make transistors. As the size of transistors approaches the atomic level, it becomes increasingly difficult to improve their performance using traditional manufacturing techniques. However, Moore's Law is not dead, it's just slowing down and many researchers are working on new technologies, such as quantum computing and nanotechnology, which could potentially continue the trend of increasing computing power in the future.

Technological Transcendence

Technological transcendence refers to the idea that humans can use advanced technology to fundamentally alter the human condition and achieve a higher level of existence. This concept is often associated with the field of transhumanism, which seeks to use technology to enhance human abilities and extend human lifespan.

One of the key ideas behind technological transcendence is that human beings are not limited to their biological bodies and that they can transcend these limitations using technology. For example, proponents of transhumanism often talk about the possibility of enhancing human intelligence, strength, and longevity through the use of technology such as brain-computer interfaces, genetic engineering, and artificial intelligence.

Another key aspect of technological transcendence is the idea that it will allow humans to achieve a higher level of consciousness or even a post-human state. This could involve merging human consciousness with advanced artificial intelligence or creating new forms of consciousness altogether.


The Kardashev Scale leaves out simulations, something a civilization may end up transcending into rather than exist in the real world. After all, if technology advances to the extent that it were possible to download consciousness into a computer then it would be possible to create whatever worlds we wish, especially if information is a state of matter. Essentially, it would be like heaven since we'd be able to create utopias and paradises.

In the real word, a type 3 civilization may create something known as a Dyson Sphere. A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure proposed by the physicist Freeman Dyson in 1960 that would surround a star and capture its entire energy output. The idea behind a Dyson sphere is that it would provide a civilization with an almost limitless supply of energy, as the entire energy output of the star would be directed towards the civilization's use.

A Dyson sphere could take several forms, but the most common proposed design is a swarm of orbiting solar panels that would encircle the star at a distance of several million miles. These solar panels would be connected by a network of wires and beams, creating a giant sphere or disk that would capture all of the energy emitted by the star.

An AI generated Dyson Sphere

The construction of a Dyson sphere would be an immense engineering challenge, requiring the mobilization of vast amounts of resources and the development of advanced technologies. Some estimates suggest that it could take thousands of years to construct a Dyson sphere, even with advanced automation and manufacturing technologies.

Who knows what would require such immense energy. Maybe those computers that run the simulations.

A star-sized computer would be an incredibly powerful computational device, capable of processing vast amounts of data and solving complex problems with ease. It would be able to harness the full energy output of a star, using this energy to power its processing capabilities and to cool itself down.

The construction of a star-sized computer would be an immense engineering challenge, requiring the mobilization of vast amounts of resources and the development of new technologies. It would likely require the construction of that Dyson sphere.

Once the Dyson sphere is constructed, the next step would be to build the computational infrastructure within it. This would involve the development of advanced computing technologies and the creation of a network of interconnected devices that can work together to process data.

The potential applications of a star-sized computer are vast, ranging from astronomical research to advanced simulations of complex systems. It could be used to model the behaviour of galaxies, simulate the evolution of life on other planets, or to analyse large data sets from telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

However, the construction of a star-sized computer also raises important ethical and existential questions. It is unclear what the long-term consequences of such a device would be, both for our understanding of the universe and for the future of humanity.

Moreover, the construction of a star-sized computer would require an immense amount of energy and resources, which may not be feasible in the long term. It is possible that we may need to develop new energy technologies or find alternative sources of energy to sustain such a device. But hypothetically speaking, those type 3 ETs will have no problem with such a feat.

Maybe the reason why we do not see alien civilizations is due to these ETs living inside simulations away from the inhospitable universe, especially if they knew about entropy! If advanced ETs known about entropy then in a simulation they go. In their simulation, they'd simply turn off entropy, good bye thermodynamics!

ETs creating universes

In Sagan's type 4 civilization, ETs go outside of the universe and into the multiverse and create their own universe. They've fudged off somewhere else, they don't like it here; too much entropy. Maybe another answer to the Fermi Paradox. They'll create a universe or find another universe where entropy doesn't exist and become immortals.

Of course, all of this is highly speculative and the stuff of science fiction but it is interesting to ponder nonetheless.

If you're wanting more to ponder, feel free to browse more articles on here and videos over at my YouTube channel,

Feel free to leave a wee comment.

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In October 2021, NASA's Mars Rover, Perseverance, made a groundbreaking discovery: a small, shiny rock that turned out to be an opal. This was the first-ever discovery of such a gemstone on Mars, and it has sparked a lot of interest among scientists and space enthusiasts alike.

Opals are a type of mineral that are highly prized for their iridescent colours, and they are typically formed from the hydration of silica-rich rocks. The opal found on Mars is believed to have formed in a similar way, as a result of the interaction between water and volcanic rock.

Mars has been a target of study for geologists for decades, as it is one of the most geologically diverse planets in our solar system. Its surface is characterized by a variety of features, including towering volcanoes, deep canyons, and vast plains.

One of the most distinctive features of Mars is its red colour, which is caused by the presence of iron oxide, also known as rust. This rust covers much of the planet's surface, and it is a testament to the planet's violent and tumultuous past.

The geology of Mars is shaped by a number of factors, including its distance from the Sun, its composition, and its history. Mars is much smaller than Earth, and it has a much thinner atmosphere. This means that it is much colder on Mars than it is on Earth, with temperatures that can plummet to -125 degrees Celsius at night.

Despite these harsh conditions, Mars has a surprisingly active geology. In addition to the towering volcanoes and deep canyons, the planet is also home to vast plains of hardened lava, as well as mountains and valleys that were carved by ancient rivers and lakes.

The discovery of the opal on Mars is just the latest in a long line of discoveries that have been made about the planet's geology. As our technology improves and our understanding of the planet grows, we are sure to make many more fascinating discoveries about this enigmatic world.

The opal found on Mars by Perseverance provides evidence that there was once water on the planet. Opals are typically formed from the interaction between water and silica-rich rocks, so the presence of an opal on Mars indicates that there was once water on the planet's surface. This is significant because it suggests that Mars may have had a much more

hospitable environment in the past, with liquid water and potentially even life. The

discovery of the opal is just one piece of evidence that is helping scientists piece together the story of Mars' past, and it is sure to lead to many more exciting discoveries in the future.

And high water and silica content in opal suggests that Mars may have once had enough

water to support habitable environments in the cracks where opal was discovered. In addition, the opal deposit may be a potential source of water for future missions to Mars, providing a vital resource for crewed expeditions.

In conclusion, the opal that was found on Mars is a remarkable discovery that has opened up new avenues of exploration and study for geologists and scientists. Mars' geology is diverse and fascinating, and it is sure to continue to surprise and amaze us as we learn more about this incredible planet.